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Referred Conference Papers

2013

Liao, Q., & Fu. W.-T. (2013). Beyond the filter bubble: Interactive effects of perceived threat and topic involvement on selective exposure to information. In Proceedings of the ACM SIGCHI conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI), Paris, France. [PDF] [Abstract]

We investigated participants' preferential selection of information and their attitude moderation in an online environment. Results showed that even when opposing views were presented side-to-side, people would still preferentially select information that reinforced their existing attitudes. Preferential selection of information was, however, influenced by both situational (e.g., perceived threat) and personal (e.g., topic involvement) factors. Specifically, perceived threat induced selective exposure to attitude consistent information for topics that participants had low involvement. Participants had a higher tendency to select peer user opinions in topics that they had low than high involvement, but only when there was no perception of threat. Overall, participants’ attitudes were moderated after being exposed to diverse views, although high topic involvement led to higher resistance to such moderation. Perceived threat also weakened attitude moderation, especially for low involvement topics. Results have important implication to the potential effects of "information bubble" – selective exposure can be induced by situational and personal factors even when competing views are presented side-by-side.

Huang, S. W., & Fu, W.-T. (2013). Don't hide in the crowd! Increasing social transparency between peer workers improves crowdsourcing outcomes. In Proceedings of the ACM SIGCHI conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI), Paris, France. [PDF] [Abstract]

This paper studied how social transparency and different peer-dependent reward schemes (i.e., individual, teamwork, and competition) affect the outcomes of crowdsourcing. The results showed that when social transparency was increased by asking otherwise anonymous workers to share their demographic information (e.g., name, nationality) to the paired worker, they performed significantly better. A more detailed analysis showed that in a teamwork reward scheme, in which the reward of the paired workers depended only on the collective outcomes, increasing social transparency could offset effects of social loafing by making them more accountable to their teammates. In a competition reward scheme, in which workers competed against each other and the reward depended on how much they outperformed their opponent, increasing social transparency could augment effects of social facilitation by providing more incentives for them to outperform their opponent. The results suggested that a careful combination of methods that increase social transparency and different reward schemes can significantly improve crowdsourcing outcomes.

Rao, H., & Fu, W.-T. (2013). A General Framework for a Collaborative Mobile Indoor Navigation Assistance System. In Proceedings of the ACM International Conference on Intelligent User Interfaces (IUI), Santa Monica, CA.

Huang, S. W., Pei-Fen Tu, & Fu, W.-T. (2013). Leveraging the crowd to improve feature-sentiment analysis of user review. In Proceedings of the International Conference on Intelligent User Interfaces (IUI), Santa Monica, CA. [PDF] [Abstract]

Crowdsourcing and machine learning are both useful techniques for solving difficult problems (e.g., computer vision and natural language processing). In this paper, we propose a novel method that harnesses and combines the strength of these two techniques to better analyze the features and the sentiments toward them in user reviews. To strike a good balance between reducing information overload and providing the original context expressed by review writers, the proposed system (1) allows users to interactively rank the entities based on feature-rating, (2) automatically highlights sentences that are related to relevant features, and (3) utilizes implicit crowdsourcing by encouraging users to provide correct labels of their own reviews to improve the feature-sentiment classifier. The proposed system not only helps users to save time and effort to digest the often massive amount of user reviews, but also provides real-time suggestions on relevant features and ratings as users generate their own reviews. Results from a simulation experiment show that leveraging on the crowd can significantly improve the feature-sentiment analysis of user reviews. Furthermore, results from a user study show that the proposed interface was preferred by more participants than interfaces that use traditional noun-adjective pairs summarization, as the current interface allows users to view feature-related information in the original context.

Huang, S.W., & Fu, W.-T. (2013). Enhancing reliability using peer consistency evaluation in human computation. In Proceedings of the 16th ACM conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW), San Antonio, TX.[PDF] [Abstract]

Peer consistency evaluation is often used in games with a purpose (GWAP) to evaluate workers using outputs of other workers without using gold standard answers. Despite its popularity, the reliability of peer consistency evaluation has never been systematically tested to show how it can be used as a general evaluation method in human computation systems. We present experimental results that show that human computation systems using peer consistency evaluation can lead to outcomes that are even better than those that evaluate workers using gold standard answers. We also show that even without evaluation, simply telling the workers that their answers will be used as future evaluation standards can significantly enhance the workers’ performance. Results have important implication for methods that improve the reliability of human computation systems.

Huang, S.W., & Fu, W.-T. (2013). Motivating crowds using social facilitation and social transparency. In Proceedings of the 16th ACM conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW), San Antonio, TX.

2012

Huang, S.W., Tu, P.-F., Amanzadeh, M., & Fu W.-T. (2012). Review Explorer: An Innovative Interface for Displaying and Collecting Categorized Review Information. Poster Presentation at the 25th ACM Symposium on User Interface Software and Technology (UIST), Cambridge, MA.

Huang, S.-W. & Fu, W.-T. (2012). Systematic Analysis of Output Agreement Games: Effects of Gaming Environment, Social Interaction, and Feedback. In Proceedings of the 4th Human Computation Workshop (HCOMP 2012), Toronto, ON. [PDF] [Abstract]

We report results from a human computation study that tests the extent to which output agreement games are better than traditional methods in terms of increasing quality of labels and motivation of voluntary workers on a task with a gold standard. We built an output agreement game that let workers recruited from Amazon’s Mechanical Turks label the semantic textual similarity of 20 sentence pairs. To compare and test the effects of the major components of the game, we created interfaces that had different combinations of a gaming environment (G), social interaction (S), and feedback (F). Our results show that the main reason that an output agreement game can collect more high-quality labels is the gaming environment (scoring system, leaderboard, etc). On the other hand, a worker is much more motivated to voluntarily do the task if he or she can do it with another worker (i.e., with social interaction). Our analysis provides human computation researchers important insight on understanding how and why the method of Game with a Purpose (GWAP) can generate high-quality outcomes and motivate more voluntary workers.

Fu, W.-T., & Liao, Q. V. (2012). Information and Attitude Diffusion in Networks. In Proceedings of the International Conference on Social Computing, Behavioral-Cultural Modeling, and Prediction (SBP), College Park, MD.

Dong, W., & Fu, W. T. (2012). One Piece at a Time: Why Video-Based Communication is Better for Negotiation and Conflict Resolution. In Proceedings of the 2012 ACM Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW), Seattle, WA. [Nominated for Best Paper, top 5 %] [PDF] [Abstract]

We compared the effects of three computer mediated communication (CMC) channels (text, audio, and video) on how people performed an appointment-scheduling task. The task involved a grounding and a conflict resolution component. The results showed that video conferencing supported participant dyads in reaching a consensus that had better balanced performance between the dyads only when task difficulty was high and when there were more inherent conflicts in the task. Participants across the three CMC conditions also demonstrated different patterns of conversation dynamics during information exchange and negotiation. Mediation analysis showed that in video-based communication, strategies of exchanging less information at a time predicted higher levels of negotiation, which in turn predicted smaller performance differences in high conflict conditions. The results suggested that the design and use of communication technologies for remote conflict resolution should promote the strategy of exchanging information in small pieces, which could better support subsequent negotiation and foster a sense of fairness.

Liao, V. Q., & Fu, W.-T. (2012). Age Differences in Credibility Judgment of Online Health Information. In Proceedings of the 2nd International conference on Health Informatics (IHI), Miami, FL. [PDF] [Abstract]

To better support older adults’ consumption of high quality health information on the Internet, it is important to understand how older adults make credibility judgments with online health information. For this purpose, we conducted two laboratory studies to explore how the credibility cues in message contents, website features, and user reviews could differentially impact younger and older adults’ credibility judgments. Results from the first experiment showed that older adults, compared to younger ones, were less sensitive to the credibility cues in message contents, as well as those in the website features. Results from the second experiment showed that user reviews that were consistent with the credibility cues in message contents could reinforce older adults’ credibility judgments. Older adults, compared to younger adults, seemed to be less swayed by user reviews that were inconsistent with the message contents. These results provided implications for designing health information websites that better support older adults’ credibility judgments.

Chin, J., & Fu, W.-T. (2012). Age Differences in Exploratory Learning from a Health Information Website. In Proceedings of the 30th international conference on Human factors in computing systems (CHI), Austin, TX. [PDF] [Abstract]

An empirical study was conducted to investigate how older and younger users learned by performing exploratory search of health information using an interface that recommended relevant links based on browsing histories. While older and younger users gained both factual and structural knowledge about the health topics, significant age differences were observed. Our results showed that processing of recommended and regular Web links imposed distinct demands on cognitive abilities, which at least partially explained the observed age differences in the search process. The use of recommended links was positively associated with general knowledge, while the use of regular Web links was positively associated with processing capacity. Results also showed that the recommended links benefited both younger and older adults by broadening the exploration of information, which led to better learning. Implications on designs of health information interfaces that facilitate exploratory search and learning for different age groups were discussed.

Liao, Q. V., Wagner, C. Pirolli, P., & Fu, W.-T. (2012). Understanding Experts' and Novices' Expertise Judgment of Twitter Users. In Proceedings of the 30th international conference on Human factors in computing systems (CHI), Austin, TX. [PDF] [Abstract]

Judging topical expertise of micro-blogger is one of the key challenges for information seekers when deciding which information sources to follow. However, it is unclear how useful different types of information are for people to make expertise judgments and to what extent their background knowledge influences their judgments. This study explored differences between experts and novices in inferring expertise of Twitter users. In three conditions, participants rated the level of expertise of users after seeing (1) only the tweets, (2) only the contextual information including short biographical and user list information, and (3) both tweets and contextual information. Results indicated that, in general, contextual information provides more useful information for making expertise judgment of Twitter users than tweets. While the addition of tweets seems to make little difference, or even add nuances to novices’ expertise judgment, experts’ judgments were improved when both content and contextual information were presented.

Moghaddam, R. Z., Bailey, B., & Fu, W.-T. (2012). Consensus Building in Open Source User Interface Design Discussions. In Proceedings of the 30th international conference on Human factors in computing systems (CHI), Austin, TX. [PDF] [Abstract]

We report results of a study which examines consensus building in user interface design discussions in open source software communities. Our methodology consisted of conducting interviews with designers and developers from the Drupal and Ubuntu communities (N=17) and analyzing a large corpus of interaction data collected from Drupal. The interviews captured user perspectives on the challenges of reaching consensus, techniques employed for building consensus, and the consequences of not reaching consensus. We analyzed the interaction data to determine how different elements of the content, process, and user relationships in the design discussions affect consensus. The main result from this analysis shows that design discussions having participants with more experience and prior interaction are more likely to reach consensus. Based on all of our results, we formulated design implications for promoting consensus in distributed discussions of user interface design issues.

2011

Fu, W.T., Rong, P., Lee, H.K., Kramer, A., & Graybiel, A. (2011). A Computational Model of Complex Skill Learning in Varied-Priority Training. In Proceedings of the 33rd Annual conference of the Cognitive Science Society.

Liao, V. Q. & Fu, W.-T. (2011). Effects of Aging and Individual Differences on Credibility Judgment of Online Health Information. In Proceedings of the 33rd Annual conference of the Cognitive Science Society.

Liao, V.Q. & Fu, W.-T. (2011). The Impact of User Reviews on Older and Younger Adults' Attitude towards Online Medication Information. In Proceedings of the 33rd Annual conference of the Cognitive Science Society. [PDF] [Abstract]

We reported a computational model of complex skill learning that captures the differential effects of Fixed Priority (FP) and Varied Priority (VP) training on complex skill learning. The model is developed based on learning mechanisms associated with the modular circuits linking Basal Ganglia, the prefrontal association cortex, and the pre-motor cortex during skill learning. Two forms of learning occur simultaneously. In discrimination learning, goal-directed actions are selected through recognition of external stimuli through the connections between the frontal cortex and the striatum, and is mediated by dopaminergic signals through a reinforcement learning mechanism. With practice, skill learning shifts from discrimination learning to Hebbian learning, which directly associates stimuli to responses by strengthening the connection between the prefrontal and pre-motor cortex. The model shows that FP training, in which all task components are equally weighted during training, leads to less flexible discrimination learning than VP training. The model explains why VP training benefits lower performance participants more, and why learning was more strongly correlated with the size of the striatum in VP than FP training.

Dong, W., & Fu, W.-T. (2011). Conflict Resolution in Remote Collaborative Work: A Comparison of Different Computer Mediated Communication Methods. In Proceedings of the 33rd Annual conference of the Cognitive Science Society. [PDF] [Abstract]

We compared the effects of text-, audio- and video-based communication methods on how people performed an appointment-scheduling task that involved both a cooperative and a conflict resolution component. The results showed that video-based communication method was more supportive of cooperative tasks when the task difficulty was high, and when there were more inherent conflicts in the task, in which more negotiation was required to resolve the conflicts. As a result, performance difference of the dyad was smaller in video communication. Different patterns of conversation dynamics and problem space visitations further supported the effect of communication methods. Results of this study have important implications in understanding the process of collaborative problem solving and conflict resolution when different communication channels were used for remote collaborators.

Bertal, S., Lee, H. K., & Fu, W.-T. (2011). Sequential Integration of Object Locations in a Spatial Updating and Reasoning Task. In Proceedings of the 33rd Annual conference of the Cognitive Science Society. [PDF] [Abstract]

We present results from an experiment studying how people mentally integrated partial configurations of objects shown across a sequence of displays with varying matches between frames of reference. Consistent with previous research on spatial updating, performance was better when the frame of reference in the final display aligned with the main display axes (up/down, left/right) than when it aligned with the diagonal axes. However, we also found that spatial updating was more efficient when the sequence of presentation of objects was consistent with the final frame of reference from which objects were integrated. Results suggested that spatial updating depended on the sequence of spatial operations required to integrate new spatial information into existing ones. Implications to theories of spatial updating in reasoning tasks are discussed.

Chin, J., & Fu, W.-T. (2011). To go or to stay? Age differences in Cognitive Foraging. In Proceedings of the 33rd Annual conference of the Cognitive Science Society. [PDF] [Abstract]

The study used the word search puzzle paradigm to investigate the cognitive foraging behavior among younger and older adults. Older adults had equivalent search performance with younger adults regardless of their decline in processing speed. Older adults tended to switch fewer times and persist longer in the patch than younger adults. Results further showed that switch behavior was based on the individual reflection of information uptake, which long exploitation in the patch of older adults could not be explained solely by general slowing but their higher tolerance of the decreasing marginal rate of gain. Overall, older adults expected to reach higher gains than younger adults before leaving the current patch. The age-dependent adaptive foraging behavior was also discussed.

Fu, W.-T., & liao, Q. V. (2011). Quality Control of Online Information: A Quality-based Cascade Model. Paper presented at the International Conference on Social Computing, Behavioral-Cultural Modeling, and Prediction. [PDF] [Abstract]

We extend previous cascade models of social influence to investigate how the exchange of quality information among users may moderate cascade behavior, and the extent to which it may influence the effectiveness of collective user recommendations on quality control of information. We found that while cascades do sometimes occur, their effects depend critically on the accuracies of individual quality assessments of information contents. Contrary to predictions of cascade models of information flow, quality-based cascades tend to reinforce the propagation of individual quality assessments rather than being the primary sources that drive the assessments. We found even small increase in individual accuracies will significantly improve the overall effectiveness of crowdsourcing quality control. Implication to domains such as online health information Web sites or product reviews are discussed.

Liao, Q. V., & Fu, W.-T. (2011). How User Reviews Influence Older and Younger Adults' Credibility Judgments of Online Health Information In Proceedings of the 29th international conference on Human factors in computing systems (CHI), Vancouver, BC. [Third Prize in Research Competition] [PDF] [Abstract]

A laboratory study was conducted to study whether the presence of online user reviews, specifically its interaction with the credibility of information on the Website, has differential impact on younger and older adults' attitude towards medication information on the Internet. Results showed that while there was age difference in how message contents and website features influenced credibility judgments, the presence of user reviews moderated the age difference. Specifically we found: 1) when credibility cues in user reviews were consistent with the credibility cues in Web page contents, older adults’ attitude towards the medication was reinforced more than younger adults, and 2) when the credibility cues in user reviews were inconsistent with the credibility cues in Web page contents, older adults were less sensitive to the influence of user reviews. Especially when highly positive user reviews were given to a seemingly non-credible medication, older adults were less likely to be swayed by user reviews. Possible causes of this age difference in the effects of user reviews were discussed. Results have important implications for the dual-process model of information processing and age differences in attitude change in the context of Internet.

Dong, W., & Fu, W.-T. (2011). Cultural Difference in Image Searching. Paper presented at the 29th international conference on Human factors in computing systems (CHI), Vancouver, BC. [Second Prize in Research Competition]

Fu, W.-T. (2011). An Agent-based Model of Information Cascades. Paper presented at the Human Social Cultural Modeling, Chantilly, VA.

Zhang, Y., & Fu, W.-T. (2011). Designing consumer health information retrieval systems: What user-generated questions tell us? . Paper presented at the International Conference of Human-Computer Interaction (HCII), Orlando, FL.

Javadi, E., & Fu, W.-T. (2011). Idea Visibility, Information Diversity, and Idea Integration in Electronic Brainstorming. Paper presented at the International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction, Orlando, FL.

Petry, J., L. Thomas, L., Park, H., & Fu, W.-T. (2011). The Role of Expertise in VFR Flight Decisions with Inconsistent Weather Information. In Proceedings of the 16th International Symposium on Aviation Psychology, Dayton, OH.

2010

Chin, J. & Fu, W.-T. (2010). Interactive Effects of Age and Interface Differences on Search Strategies and Performance. In Proceedings of the 28th annual conference of ACM Computer-Human Interaction (CHI) conference, Altanta, GA, US.

Fu, W.-T., & Dong, W. (2010). Facilitating knowledge exploration in folksonomies: Expertise ranking by link and semantic structures. In Proceedings of the 2010 International Conference on Computational Science and Engineering, Minneapolis, MN. [PDF] [Abstract]

We developed user models of knowledge exploration in a social tagging system to test the expertise rankings generated by a link-structure method and a semantic-structure method. The link-structure method assumed a referential definition of expertise, in which experts were users who tagged resources that were frequently tagged by other experts; the semantic-structure method assumed a representational definition of expertise, in which experts were users who had better knowledge of a particular domain and were better at assigning distinctive tags associated with certain domain-specific resources. Simulations results showed that the two methods of expert identification, although based on different assumptions, were in general consistent but did show significant differences. As expected, the link-structure method was better at facilitating exploration of popular "hot" topics than the semantic-structure method. However, the semantic-structure method was better at guiding users to find less popular “cold” topics than the link-structure method. Resources tagged by domain experts could contain cold topics that were associated with high quality tags, but these resources were less likely highlighted by the link-structure method. We argue that to facilitate knowledge exploration in social tagging systems, it is important to keep a good balance between helping user to follow hot topics and to discover cold topics by including expertise rankings generated by both link and semantic structures.

Fu, W.-T., Kannampallil, T., & Kang, R. (2010). Facilitating Exploratory Search by Model-Based Navigational Cues. In Proceedings of the International Conference on Intelligent User Interfaces, Hong Kong, China. [PDF] [Abstract]

We present an extension of a computational cognitive model of social tagging and exploratory search called the semantic imitation model. The model assumes a probabilistic representation of semantics for both internal and external knowledge, and utilizes social tags as navigational cues during exploratory search. We used the model to generate a measure of information scent that controls exploratory search behavior, and simulated the effects of multiple presentations of navigational cues on both simple information retrieval and exploratory search performance based on a previous model called SNIF-ACT. We found that search performance can be significantly improved by these model-based presentations of navigational cues for both experts and novices. The result suggested that exploratory search performance depends critically on the match between internal knowledge (domain expertise) and external knowledge structures (folksonomies). Results have significant implications on how social information systems should be designed to facilitate knowledge exchange among users with different background knowledge.

Kang, R., & Fu, W.-T. (2010). Exploratory Information Search by Domain Experts and Novices. In Proceedings of the International Conference on Intelligent User Interfaces, Hong Kong, China.

Dong, W., & Fu, W.-T. (2010). Toward a cultural-sensitive image tagging tools. In Proceedings of the International Conference on Intelligent User Interfaces, Hong Kong, China.

Chin, J. & Fu, W.-T. (2010). Interactive Effects of Age and Interface Differences on Search Strategies and Performance. In Proceedings of the ACM Conference on Computer-Human Interaction, Atlanta, GA. [PDF] [Abstract]

We present results from an experiment that studied the information search behavior of younger and older adults in a medical decision-making task. To study how different combination of tasks and interfaces influenced search strategies and decision-making outcomes, we varied information structures of two interfaces and presented different task descriptions to participants. We found that younger adults tended to use different search strategies in different combination of tasks and interfaces, and older adults tended to use the same top-down strategies across conditions. We concluded that older adults were able to perform mental transformation of medical terms more effectively than younger adults. Thus older adults did not require changing strategies to maintain the same level of performance.

Kang, R., Fu, W.-T., & Kannampallil, T. (2010). Exploiting Knowledge-in-the-head and Knowledge-in-the-social-web: Effects of Domain Expertise on Exploratory Search in Individual and Social Search Environments. In Proceedings of the ACM Conference on Computer-Human Interaction, Atlanta, GA. [PDF] [Abstract]

Our study examined how experts and novices performed exploratory search using a traditional search engine and a social tagging system. As expected, results showed that social tagging systems could facilitate exploratory search for both experts and novices. We, however, also found that experts were better at interpreting the social tags and generating search keywords, which made them better at finding information when they were using the two interfaces. Specifically, experts found more general information than novices by better interpretation of social tags; and experts found more domain-specific information than novices by generating better keywords when using the search engine. We found a dynamic interaction between knowledge-in-the-head and knowledge-in-the-social-web, and demonstrated that although information seekers are becoming more and more reliant on information from the social Web, domain expertise is still important in guiding them to find information and evaluate the relevance of information. Implications on the design of social search systems that facilitate exploratory search are discussed.

Dong, W. & Fu, W.-T. (2010). Cultural Difference in Image Tagging. In Proceedings of the ACM Conference on Computer-Human Interaction, Atlanta, GA. [PDF] [Abstract]

Do people from different cultures tag digital images differently? The current study compared the content of tags for digital images created by two cultural groups: European Americans and Chinese. In line with previous findings on cultural differences in attentional patterns, we found similar cultural differences in the order of the image parts (e.g., foreground or background objects) that people tag. We found that for European Americans, the first tag was more likely assigned to the main objects than that by Chinese; but for Chinese, the first tag was more likely assigned to the overall description or relations between objects in the images. The findings had significant implications for designing cultural-sensitive tools to facilitate the tagging and search process of digital media, as well as for developing data-mining tools that identify user profiles based on their tagging patterns and cultural origins.

Wang, Y., Dong, W., & Fu, W.-T. (2010). To Customize or Not to Customize? The Use of a Customization Tool to Augment Information Indexing in a Computer Desktop Environment. In Proceedings of the 54th conference of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society. [PDF] [Abstract]

We studied when and how people will use a customization tool that helps users offload information indexing to the external environment to augment finding and re-finding of information in a computer desktop environment. An experiment was conducted to study how the cost and benefit of customization may influence when and how participants customize, and how the customization may help them find and re-find information. Results showed that participants were sensitive to the cost and benefit of customization. In general, participants performed more customization when the cost was low and when the benefit was high. Customization was also found to influence their information indexing strategy. Implications to design of customization tools for information indexing were discussed.

Waicekauskas, K., Kannampallil, T. G., Kopren, K., Tan, P.-H., Fu, W.-T., & Morrow, D. (2010). Collaborative Tools in a Simulated Patient-Provider Medication Scheduling Task. Paper presented at the 54th conference of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society, San Francisco, CA. [PDF] [Abstract]

Medication adherence is an essential activity for successful self-care, particularly for older adults who take multiple medications. Adherence depends on understanding how to take medication, which in turn depends on effective communication with providers. Unfortunately, physician and patient communication is often substandard and ineffective. Furthermore, successful adherence is often tied to supporting the patient's prospective memory by integrating medication taking with a daily routine. We have developed a paper-based tool (MedTable) for supporting provider-patient collaborative planning about taking medication, which has improved performance in a simulated medication scheduling task. The tool is used as an external workspace that reduces cognitive demands while also facilitating collaboration in a planning task. In the current study, the MedTable was redesigned and an electronic version was also developed. Both tools were compared to a less structured paper tool similar to medication reconciliation cards used in many health care settings (Medcard). 144 community dwelling older adults (aged 60 and over) participated in pairs in a simulated patient-provider medication scheduling task. Each pair solved four medication scheduling problems (2 simple and 2 complex) using one of the three tools (MedTable, e-MedTable, Medcard). Although all three tools supported highly accurate solutions, the MedTable produced significantly more accurate schedules than the Medcard (there were no tool differences in solution time). Moreover, participants rated workload associated with problem solving as lower for the two structured tools compared to the Medcard. The MedTable was also rated more usable than the non-structured aid. Finally, there was no evidence that older adults had difficulty using the computer-based tool, which suggests that a computer-based tool could be an effective intervention for improving provider-patient collaboration.

Wang, Yi, Moon, M., Fu, W.-T., Boot, W., Erickson, K., & Kramer, A. (2010). Effects of Varied Priority Training on Complex Perceptual-Motor Learning. In Proceedings of the 32nd Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society.

D'Andrea, L. & Fu, W.-T. (2010). The Effects of Communication Medium Upon Collaborative Orientation Task Performance. In Proceedings of the 32nd Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society.

Moon, M. & Fu, W.-T. (2010). Adaptive Information Indexing in Re-finding Information. In Proceedings of the 32nd Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society.

D'Andrea, L., Bertel, S., & Fu, W.-T. (2010). Collaborative Orientation Task Performance: Effects of Communication Medium and Relative Spatial Abilities. Paper presented at the Spatial Cognition conference.

2009

Fu, W.-T., Kannampallil, T. G., Kang, Ruogu (2009), A Semantic Imitation Model of Social Tag Choices. In Proceedings of the 2009 International Conference on Social Computing, pp. 66-72, Vancouver, BC. [PDF] [Abstract]

We describe a semantic imitation model of social tagging that integrates formal representations of semantics and a stochastic tag choice process to explain and predict emergent behavioral patterns. The model adopts a probabilistic topic model to separately represent external word-topic and internal word-concept relations. These representations are coupled with a tag-based topic inference process that predicts how existing tags may influence the semantic interpretation of a document. The inferred topics influence the choice of tags assigned to a document through a random utility model of tag choices. We show that the model is successful in explaining the stability in tag proportions across time and power-law frequency-rank distributions of tag co-occurrences for semantically general and narrow tags. The model also generates novel predictions on how emergent behavioral patterns may change when users with different domain expertise interact with a social tagging system. The model demonstrates the weaknesses of single-level analyses and highlights the importance of adopting a multi-level modeling approach to explain online social behavior.

Chin, J., Fu, W.-T., & Kannampallil, T. (2009). Adaptive Information Search: Age-Dependent Interactions between Cognitive Profiles and Strategies. In Proceedings of the 27th annual conference of ACM Computer-Human Interaction (CHI) conference, Boston, MA, US. [PDF] [Abstract]

Previous research has shown that older adults performed worse in web search tasks, and attributed poorer performance to a decline in their cognitive abilities. We conducted a study involving younger and older adults to compare their web search behavior and performance in illdefined and well-defined information tasks using a health information website. In ill-defined tasks, only a general description about information needs was given, while in well-defined tasks, information needs as well as the specific target information were given. We found that older adults performed worse than younger adults in well-defined tasks, but the reverse was true in ill-defined tasks. Older adults compensated for their lower cognitive abilities by adopting a top-down knowledge-driven strategy to achieve the same level of performance in the ill-defined tasks. Indeed, path analysis showed that cognitive abilities, health literacy, and knowledge influenced search strategies adopted by older and younger adults. Design implications are also discussed.

Fu, W.-T. & Kannampallil, T. (2009). Harnessing Web 2.0 for context-aware learning: The impact of social tagging system on knowledge adaption. In N. Lambropoulos and R. Margarida (Eds.), Educational Social Software for Context-Aware Learning: Collaborative Methods and Human Interaction. IGI Global.

Moon, J. M., & Fu, W.-T. (2009). Effects of spatial locations and luminance on finding and re-finding information in a desktop environment. In Proceedings of the 27th annual conference of ACM Computer-Human Interaction (CHI) conference, Boston, MA, US.

Kang, R., Kannampallil, T., He, J ,& Fu, W.-T. (2009). Conformity out of Diversity: Dynamics of Information Needs and Social Influence of Tags in Exploratory Information Search. In Proceedings of the International conference of Human-Computer Interaction, CA: San Diego, US. [PDF] [Abstract]

We studied the dynamic effects of information needs and social influence of tags in an exploratory search task. Although initially differences in information needs led to diversity in tag choices, this diversity disappeared as participants collaboratively tagged the same set of resources. Our findings are in general consistent with the notion that people conform to the collective interpretation of contents in an information system. In addition, our results showed that conformity does not only arise out of imitation of behavior, but also from the same underlying semantic interpretation or knowledge structures of users as they engage in informal collaboration through the social tagging system. Implications for design of social information system are discussed.

Kannampallil, T., & Fu, W.-T. (2009). Trail Patterns in Social Tagging Systems: Role of Tags as Digital Pheromones. In Proceedings of the International conference of Human-Computer Interaction, CA: San Diego, US.

Fu, W.-T., & Park, H. (2009). The role of information seeking in risk assessment. In Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the Society of Judgment and Decision Making, Boston, MA.

Chin, J. & Fu, W.-T. (2009). Age-Dependent Interactions Between Cognitive Profiles and Information Search Strategies. In Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Psychonomics Society, Boston, MA.

2008

Fu, W.-T. (2008). The microstructures of social tagging: A rational model. In Proceedings of the ACM 2008 conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW), pp 229-238. San Diego, CA, US. [PDF] [Abstract]

This article presents a rational model developed under the distributed cognition framework that explains how social tags influence knowledge acquisition and adaptation in exploratory ill-defined information tasks. The model provides integrated predictions on the interactions among link selections, use and creation of tags, and the formation of mental categories. The model shows that the quality of tags not only influences search efficiency, but also the quality of mental categories formed during exploratory search. In addition, the model shows that aggregate regularities can be explained by microstructures of behavior that emerged from the adaptive assimilation of concepts and categories of multiple users through the social tagging system. The model has important implications on how collaborative systems could influence higher-level cognitive activities.

Fu, W.-T. (2008). How adaptive is consumer sequential decision making? In Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the Society of Judgment and Decision Making, Chicago, IL, US.

Fu, W.-T. (2008). SNIF-DM: A Cognitive Model of Information Seeking and Decision Making on the World Wide Web. In Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Applied Human Factors, Las Vegas, NV, US.

Moon, M., & Fu, W.-T. (2008). A situated cognitive model of the routine evolution of skills. In Proceedings of the 52nd Conference of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society, New York, NY.

2007

Miller, S. & Fu, W.-T. (2007). The role of temporal sequence learning in guiding visual attention allocation. In Proceedings of the 51st Conference of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society, Baltimore, MD, US. [PDF] [Abstract]

Models of visual attention allocation suggest that monitoring is driven primarily by proximal cues like bandwidth and value. However, these cues might not always be predictive of the meaningful events an operator is asked to monitor. The aim of the current study is to extend visual sampling models by studying whether sampling can be influenced by more distal cues, like detecting patterns in the monitored signal, when proximal cues, like bandwidth, are not predictive of the meaningful events the operator is asked to monitor. Ten participants completed a task based on Senders’ (1964) experiment where operators were asked to monitor a series of four gauges to detect when the gauges traveled into the alarm region. The performance results suggest that participants could successfully adapt to the temporal sequence. However, participants did not show explicit awareness of the sequence, indicating that this type of learning could, in some cases, be implicit. Implications for display design and training are discussed.

2006

Fu, W.-T., Anderson, J. R. (2006), Solving the credit assignment problem: Explicit and implicit learning with internal and external state information. Proceedings of the 28th Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society. Hillsdale, NJ: LEA.

Fu, W.-T., Gonzalez, C. (2006), Learning to control dynamic systems: Information utilization and future planning. Proceedings of the 28th Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society. Hillsdale, NJ: LEA.

Fu, W.-T., Gonzalez, C, Healy, A., Kole, J., Bourne, L. (2006), Building predictive human performance models of skill acquisition in a data entry task. Proceedings of the 50th Annual Meeting of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society (pp. 1122-1126). Santa Monica, CA: Human Factors and Ergonomics Society. [PDF] [Abstract]

This paper presents a predictive model of a simple, but important, data entry task. The task requires participants to perceive and encode information on the screen, locate the corresponding keys for the information on different layouts of the keyboard, and enter the information. Since data entry is a central component in most human-machine interaction, a predictive model of performance will provide useful information that informs interface design and effectiveness of training. We created a cognitive model of the data entry task based on the ACT-R 5.0 architecture. The same model provided good fits to three existing data sets, which demonstrated the effects of fatigue with prolonged work, repetition priming, depth of processing, and the suppression of subvocal rehearsal. The model also makes predictions on how performance deteriorates with different delays after training, how different amounts of rehearsal during training affect retention, and how re-training helps retention of skills.using either the keypad on the right-hand side of the computer keyboard or the number row on the top of the keyboard. In some cases, they respond instead by typing the initial letters of each word (e.g., f e t s). Typically, no feedback concerning the accuracy of the responses is provided to the subjects, and they do not see their typed responses. There are three major component-processing stages in the data-entry task: encoding, response preparation, and response execution. Encoding involves perceptual processes, response preparation involves the mental construction of a motor program for entering the sequence, and response execution involves the actual motoric button presses.

Fu, W.-T. (2006), Adaptive acquisition of enactive knowledge. Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Enactive Interfaces, Montpellier, France.

2004

Fu, W.-T., Anderson, J. R. (2004), Extending the computational abilities of the procedural learning mechanism in ACT-R. Proceedings of the 26th Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society. Hillsdale, NJ: LEA.

Fu, W.-T., Bothell, D., Douglass, S., Haimson, C., Sohn, M.-H, Anderson, J. A. (2004), Learning from real-time over-the-shoulder instructions in a dynamic task. Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Cognitive Modeling. Pittsburgh, PA.

Gray, W. D., Veksler, D., Fu, W.-T. (2004), Probing the paradox of the active user: Asymmetrical transfer may produce stable, suboptimal performance. Proceedings of the 26th Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society. Hillsdale, NJ: LEA.

2003

Fu, W.-T. (2003), A Bayesian satisficing model of human adaptive planning. Proceedings of the 25th Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society (pp. 420-425). Hillsdale, NJ: LEA.

Fu, W.-T. (2003), An ACT-R adaptive planner in a simple map- navigation task. In F. Detje, D. Doerner, & H. Schaub (Eds.), Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Cognitive Modeling (pp. 99-104). Bamberg, Germany: Universitats-Verlag Bamberg.

Pirolli, P., Fu, W.-T. (2003), SNIF-ACT: A model of information foraging on the world wide web. Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on User Modeling. New York: Springer-Verlag. (Winner of Best Theoretical Paper Award).

2002

Pirolli, P., Fu, W.-T., Reeder, R., Card, S. K. (2002), A user-tracing architecture for modeling interaction with world wide web. Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Advanced Visual Interfaces. New York: ACM Press.

2001

Fu, W.-T., Gray, W. D. (2001), Modeling cognitive versus perceptual-motor tradeoffs using ACT-R/PM. Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Cognitive Modeling (pp. 247-248). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Gray, W. D., Fu, W.-T. (2001), Ignoring perfect knowledge in-the- world for imperfect knowledge in-the-head: Implications of rational analysis for interface design. Proceedings of the ACM CHI'01 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems. Also in CHI Letters, 3(1).

2000

Fu, W.-T., Gray, W. D. (2000), Memory versus perceptual-motor tradeoffs in a blocks world task. Proceedings of the 22nd Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society, Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

Gray, W. D., Fu, W.-T. (2000), The influence of source and cost of information access on correct and errorful interactive behavior. Proceedings of the 22nd Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society, Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

Gray, W. D., Schoelles, J. J., Fu, W.-T. (2000), Modeling a continuous dynamic task. Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Cognitive Modeling (pp. 158-168). Groningen, NL: Universal Press.

Trickett, S. B., Fu, W.-T., Schunn, D. D., Trafton, J. G. (2000), From dipsy-doodles to streaming motions: Changes in representation in the analysis of visual scientific data. Proceedings of the 22nd Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society, Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

1999

Fu, W.-T., Gray, W. D. (1999), Redirecting direct-manipulation, or, what happens when the goal is in front of you but the interface says to turn left. Proceedings of ACM CHI'99 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (pp. 226-227). New York: ACM Press.